Medicine In China: A History Of Pharmaceutics

Medicine In China:  A History Of Pharmaceutics

Paul Unschuld

Unschuld provides a description and analysis of the contents and structure of traditional Chinese pharmaceutical literature. Unschuld has selected some one hundred titles in this far-reaching study.

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Contents

Illustrations and Supplementary Material xi
Acknowledgments xiii

A. Introduction 1
1. General Approach 1
2. The Social Context of Chinese Pharmaceutical Literature 3
3. Authorship and Scope of Contents 5
4. Illustrations, Drug Classification, and the Issue of Progress in Traditional Chinese Pharmaceutical Literature 6

B. Shen-nung, Pen-ts'ao, and the Origins of Pharmaceutical Literature
in China 11

C. The Pen-ts’ao Literature with Comprehensive Contents 17
I. The Main Tradition of Pen-ts'ao Liteerature 17
1. Early Pen-ts'ao Works before T'ao Hung-ching
1.1. Structure and content of the Pen-ching 18
1.1.1. The ten general sections in the first chapter of the Pen-ching 19
1.1.2. The monograph section of the Pen-ching 21
1.2. Observations on the content of the Pen-ching 23
1.2.1. The classification of drugs in the Pen-ching 23
1.2.2. The theoretical foundations of pharmaceutical knowledge
in the Pen-ching 25
1.3. The characteristics of the main pen-ts'ao tradition 28

2. The Drug Works Compiled by T'ao Hung-ching 28
2.1. T'ao Hung-ching 28
2.2. The Pen-ts'ao works of T'ao Hung-ching 30
2.3. The fragment of Tun-huang 41
2.4. Observations on the work of T'ao Hung-ching 44

3. The Hsin-hsiu pen-ts’ao 44
3.1. The preface of the Hsin-hsiu pen-ts'ao 44
3.2. The first government-sponsored materia medica in China 4S
3.3. Structure and contents of the Hsin-hsiu pen-ts'ao 47
3.4. A supplement to the T'ang pen-tstao: the Pen-tstao shih-i 50

4. The Ch'ung-knang ying-kung pen-ts'ao 52

5. The Works in the Main Pen-ts'ao Tradition of the Sung Period 53
5.1. The intellectual situation during the time of the Northern Sung and its influence on the development of medicine 53
5.2. The K'ai-pao hsin hsiang-ting pen-ts'ao 55
5.3. The K'ai-pao ch'ung-ting pen-ts'ao 58
5.4. The Chia-yu pu-chu Shen-nung pen-ts'ao 60
5.5. The T'u-ching pen-ts'ao 64
5.6. The Ch'ung-kuang pu-chu Shen-nung pen-ts'ao ping t'u-ching 68
5.7. The Ching-shih cheng-lei pei-chi pen-ts'ao 70
5.8. The Ching-shih cheng-lei ta-kuan pen-ts'ao 72
5.8.1. The structure and contents of the Ta-kuan pen-ts'ao 73
5.9. The Cheng-ho hsin-hsiu ching-shih cheng-lei pei-yung pen-ts'ao 77
5.10. The Shao-hsing chiao-ting ching-shih cheng-lei pei-chi pen-tsï¿1⁄2ao 77
5.11. The Ch'ung-hsiu cheng-ho ching-shih cheng-lei pei-yung pen-ts'ao 81
5.12. The Hsin-pien lei-yno t'u-chu pen-ts'ao 82

6. Concluding Remarks on the Main Pen-ts'ao Tradition 83

II. The Pen-ts'ao Literature of the Chin-Yï¿1⁄2an Epoch 85
1. Toward a Pharmacology of Systematic Correspondence 85
1.1. Symbolic syncretism 85
1.2. The Pen-ts'ao yen-i 85
1.2.1. The first three chapters of the Pen-ts'ao yen-i 86
1.2.2. The monograph section of the Pen-ts'ao yen-i 100
1.3. The theorization of drug knowledge 101

2. The Pharmaceutical Literature of the Chin-Yï¿1⁄2an Period 101
2.1. The Chen-chu nang 101
2.2. The Yung-yao fa-hsiang 104
2.3. The Chen-chu nang chih-chang pu-i yao-hsing fu 106
2.4. The T'ang-yeh pen-ts'ao 108
2.4.1. The second preface of the T'ang-yeh pen-ts'ao 108
2.4.2. The first chapter of the T'ang-yeh pen-ts'ao 110
2.4.3. The drug monographs in the T'ang-yeh pen-ts'ao 116
2.5. The Pen-ts'ao yen-i pu-i 117

3. Later Works in the Chin-Yï’an Tradition of Pen-ts'ao Literature 118
3.1. The Pen-ts’ao fa-hui 118
3.2 The Pen-ts'ao chi-yao 119
3.3 The Pen-ts'ao hui 120
3.4 The Pen-ts'ao shu 122
3.5 The Pen-tsï¿1⁄2ao shu kou-yuan 124

4. Concluding Observations on the Chin-Yï’an Tradition of Pen-ts'ao Literature 126

III. Two Outstanding Drug Works of the Sixteenth Century 128
1. The Yu-chih pen-ts'ao p'in-hui ching-yao 128
1.1. Structure and contents of the work 131
1.2. The transmission of the Pen-ts'ao p'in-hui ching-yao and the Pen-ts'ao p'in-hui ching-yno hsu-chi 142
1.3. The further fate of the known versions of the Pen-ts'ao p'in-hui ching-yao 143

2. The Pen-ts'ao kang mu 145
2.1. Life and works of Li Shih-chen 145
2.2. Structure and contents of the Pen-ts’ao kang mu 148
2.2.1. The monograph of the drug pa-tou in the Pen-ts'ao kang mu 153
2.2.2. The monograph of the drug a-fu-jung in the Pen-ts'ao kang mu 158
2.3. The Ming editions of the Pen-ts'ao kang mu 160
2.3.1. The Chin-ling edition of the Pen-ts'ao kang mu 160
2.3.2. The Chiang-hsi edition of the Pen-tstao kang mu 160
2.3.3. The Ch'ien-shih edition of the Pen-ts'ao kang mu 161
2.4. The position of Li Shih-chen in the history of Chinese pharmaceutical literature 161
2.5. Supplementary works to the Pen-ts'ao kang mu 164
2.5.1. The Wan-fang chen-hsien 164
2.5.2. The Pen-ts'ao kang mu shih-i 164

IV. The Eclectic Tradition of Pen-ts'ao Literature 169
1. The Hui-t'u pen-ts'ao kang mu hut-yen 169
2. The Pen-ts'ao hui-yao chien-chu 170
3. The Pen-tstao pei-yno 170
4. The Pen-ts'ao ts'ung-hsin 173
S. The Pen-ts'ao ch'iu-chen 175
6. Concluding Remarks on the Eclectic Tradition of Pen-ts'ao Literature 177

V. The Han-his’eh Tradition of Pen-ts'ao Literature 181
1. The Intellectual Situation during the Ming and Ch'ing Period: The Return to the Sources 181

2. The Drug Works in the Han-hsï’eh Tradition of Pen-tsï¿1⁄2ao Literature 183
2.1 The Shen-nung pen-ching (reconstructionby Lu Fu) 183
2.2. The Shen-nung pen-ts'ao ching shu 183
2.3. The Pen-ts'ao ch'eng-ya pan-chieh 185
2.4. The Pen-ts'ao ch'ung-yuan 185
2.5. The Pen-ching feng-yuan 188
2.6. The Shen-nung pen-ts'ao ching pai-chung lu 192
2.7. The Shen-nung pen-tstao ching (reconstruction by Sun Hsing-yen) 196
2.8. The Pen-ching shu-cheng 197
2.9. The Shen-nung pen-ts'ao ching (reconstruction by Huang Shih) 202
2.10. The Shen-nung pen-ts'ao ching (reconstruction by Ku Kuan-kuang) 202
2.11. The Shen-nung pen-ts'ao (reconstruction by Wang K'ai-yï¿1⁄2n) 202
2.12 The Shen-nung pen-ching (reconstruction by Chiang Kuo-i) 202

Vl. Concluding Remarks on the Han-hsueh Tradition and on Pen-ts'ao Literature with Comprehensive Contents 203

D. The Pen-ts’ao Literature with Specialized Contents 205

I. Pen-ts'ao Works on Dietetics 205
1. The Shen-nung Huang-ti shih-chin 207
2. The Huang-ti tea-yin shih chi 207
3. The Lao-tcu chin-shih ching 207
4. The Ts'ui Hao shih-ching 207
5. The Shih-lino pen-ts'ao 208
6. The Shih-hsing pen-ts'ao 211
7. The Shih-chih ttung-shuo 212
8. The Yin-shan cheng-yao 213
9. The Jih-yung pen-ts'ao 220
10. The Chiu-huang pen-ts'ao 221
11. The Shih-wu pen-ts'ao (Lu Ho) 221
12. The Pen-ts'ao yueh-yen 223
13. The Shih-wu pen-ts'ao (Wang Ying) 224
14. The Pei-k'ao shih-wu pen-ts'ao kang mu 225

II. Monographic Pen-ts'ao Works 229

1. The Chih-ts'ao t'u 229
2. The Ho-shou-wu lu 230
3. The Chungju lun 232
4. The Jen-shen chuan 233
5. The Ai-yeh chuan 234
6. The Shen-p'u 234
7. The Jen-shen k'ao 234
8. The Kuei-k'ao 235

III . Pharmaceutical -Technological Pen-ts'ao Works 236
1. On the Preparation of Drugs in Traditional Chinese Pharmacy 236
2. The Lei-kung p'ao-chih lun 239
3. The Chih-yno fa lun 241
4. The Hsiu-chih yno fa 241
5. The Chin-shih chih-yno fa 241
6. The Pen-tstao meng-ch'uan 241
7. The Pen-ts'ao yuan-shih ho Lei-kung p'ao-chih 248
8. The P'ao-chih ta-fa 249
9. The Lei-kung p'ao-chih yao-hsing chieh 251

IV. Pen-ts'ao Literature in Verse 252
1. The Yao-hsing ko-k'uo 252
2. The Hui-min chu pen-ts'ao shih-chien 253

V. Various Pen-ts'ao Works with Specialized Contents 255
1. The Chih-wu ming-shih-tu k'ao, a Pen-tstao Work Limited to Plants 255

2. Regionally Specialized Pen-ts'ao Works 258
2.1. The Hu pen-ts'ao 258
2.2. The Nan-hai yno-ptu 259

3. Lists of Secondary Names for Drugs 259
3.1. The Chu-yao i-ming 259
3.2. The Yao-ming p'u 2593.3 The Yao-ming shih 259
3.4. The Chu-yao pieh-ming lu 259
3.5 The Ku-chin yao-wu pieh-ming k'ao 259

E. The Chinese Pharmacopoeias of the Twentieth Century 261

I. The Pharmacopoeias of the Republic of China 261
1. On the Historical Background of Medicine and Pharmacy in Early Twentieth-century China 261

2. China's First Pharmacopoeia: the Chung-hua yno-tien of 1930 262
2.1. Structure and content of the first drug code of China 263
2.2. The integration of Western terminology 266

3. The Pharmacopoea Chinensis Editio 11 267
3.1. Structure and content of the Drug Code of the Republic of China, second edition 269

4. The Pharmacopoea Chinensis Editio 111 273

II. The Drug Codes of the People's Republic of China 276
1. The First Drug Code of the People's Republic of China 276
1.1. The preface 276
1.2. Structure and content of the first drug code of the People's Republic of China 277
1.3. Western and traditional Chinese elements in the first drug code of the People's Republic of China 279

2. The Second Drug Code of the People's Republic of China(currently in force) 280
2.1. The preface 280

2.2. The monograph section of the first volume 280
2.3. The appendixes of the first volume 282
2.4. The second volume 284

3. Concluding Remarks on the Chinese Drug Codes and on the Situation of Traditional Chinese Pharmaceutics in Contemporary China 284

Notes 289
Bibliography: Chinese Primary Sources 301
Chinese and Japanese Secondary Sources 305
Western Secondary Sources 313
Index of Persons
Index of Book Titles 339
Index of Drugs 351
General Index 363

Overview

AuthorPaul Unschuld
PublisherUniversity of California Press
Number Of Pages379
Book FormatHardback
ISBN978-0520050259

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