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Not only does acupuncture enhance immunity, telling subjects that it does so increases the benefit. Sixty healthy volunteers were randomised to receive acupuncture at Quchi L.I.-11 (groups one and two) or relaxation (group three) twice a week for four weeks. Only acupuncture group one and the relaxation group were provided with the additional suggestion that the treatment might strengthen the immune system. In comparison with the relaxation group as a control, significantly greater increases in leucocyte cytotoxicity (the ability of white blood cells to kill other cells) were observed in acupuncture group one. The average increase in leucocyte cytotoxicity was about 30% greater in acupuncture group 1 than in the relaxation group. Plasma concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines increased significantly only in the acupuncture groups. The authors conclude that a conditioning-expectation effect intensifies the increase in leukocyte cytotoxicity caused by regular acupuncture in healthy volunteers. (Acupuncture induces a pro-inflammatory immune response intensified by a conditioning-expectation effect. Forsch Komplementmed. 2010;17(1):21-7).