Tendon Bi: TCM Analysis and Acupuncture Treatment
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Bi (痹) syndrome located in the sinews is classified as tendon (jin) bi. Its specific symptoms are pain, stiffness and weakness of the tendons and joints; the joints can be bent, but not stretched. Clinically, tendon bi syndrome covers many different acute and chronic tendinopathies including several kinds of tendinitis, tendinosis and tenosynovitis such as De Quervain's tenosynovitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, epicondylitis (tennis elbow), medial epicondylitis (golfer's elbow), Pes Anserine tendinitis (goosefoot tendonitis), supraspinatus tendinitis and adhesive capsulitis or periarthritis of the shoulder ('frozen shoulder'). This article describes the theory of tendon bi and presents strategies for successful acupuncture treatment of this common condition.
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